Food Insecurity and Parent Feeding Practices in Urban and Rural Children Aged 7–12 Years

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To examine associations between food insecurity and parent feeding practices for children aged 7–12 years; to determine differences between cohorts in urban and rural communities. Design: Secondary analysis using baseline data from 2 randomized controlled trials: HOME Plus (urban) and NU-HOME (rural). Participants: A convenience sample of 264 parent-child dyads. Children were 51.5% female, aged 9.28 ± 1.45 years. Variables Measured: Dependent variables included the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ), restrictive feeding subscale, parent modeling of fruits and vegetable score, and family meal frequency (FMF) at breakfast and evening. Food insecurity was the primary independent variable. Analysis: Multivariable linear or Poisson regression for each outcome. Results: Food insecurity was associated with a 26% lower weekly rate of FMF at breakfast (95% confidence interval, 6% to 42%; P = 0.02). In stratified analysis, this association was only in the rural NU-HOME study (44% lower weekly rate; 95% confidence interval, 19% to 63%; P = 0.003). Food insecurity was not associated with CFQ restrictive score, parent modeling score, or FMF at the evening meal. Conclusions and Implications: Food insecurity was associated with less frequent family breakfast but not with other parent feeding practices. Future studies could investigate supportive mechanisms for positive feeding practices in households experiencing food insecurity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)105-113
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Research studies reported in this manuscript were supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases under award no. R01DK08400 (PI, Jayne A. Fulkerson; the HOME Plus study) and the National Heart, Blood, and Lung Institute under award no.1R01HL123699 (PI, Jayne A. Fulkerson; the NU-HOME study) of the National Institutes of Health. Co-author Jiwoo Lee was supported by grants UL1TR002494 (Blazar BR) and KL2TR002492 (Ingbar DH) from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the National Institutes of Health. The authors want to acknowledge the families who participated and the community support that made these trials possible. The authors also thank the research team members and students who contributed to both studies.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior


  • child feeding
  • family meal frequency
  • food insecurity
  • parent feeding practices
  • poverty

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural


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