Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation (also known as fMRI repetition suppression) has been widely used to characterize stimulus selectivity in vivo, a fundamental feature of neuronal processing in the brain. We investigated whether SZ patients and BD patients show aberrant fMRI adaptation for object perception. About 52 SZ patients, 55 BD patients, and 53 community controls completed an object discrimination task with three conditions: the same object presented twice, two exemplars from the same category, and two exemplars from different categories. We also administered two functional localizer tasks. A region of interest analysis was employed to evaluate a priori hypotheses about the lateral occipital complex (LOC) and early visual cortex (EVC). An exploratory whole brain analysis was also conducted. In the LOC and EVC, controls showed the expected reduced fMRI responses to repeated presentation of the same objects compared with different objects (i.e., fMRI adaptation for objects, p <.001). SZ patients showed an adaptation effect that was significantly smaller compared with controls. BD patients showed a lack of fMRI adaptation. The whole brain analyses showed enhanced fMRI responses to repeated presentation of the same objects only in BD patients in several brain regions including anterior cingulate cortex. This study was the first to employ fMRI adaptation for objects in SZ and BD. The current findings provide empirical evidence of aberrant fMRI adaptation in the visual cortex in SZ and BD, but in distinctly different ways.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
information: National Institute of Mental Health, Grant/Award Number: MH095878We would like to thank Ana Ceci Myers and Julio Iglesias for their assistance in data collection and Michelle J. Dolinsky for the participant recruitment. We also would like to thank One Mind ? Center for Cognitive Neuroscience at UCLA for their generous support to the CCN scanner. fMRI data analysis for this study used computational and storage services associated with the Hoffman2 Shared Cluster provided by UCLA Institute for Digital Research and Education's Research Technology Group.
Junghee Lee has been serving as a consultant for Takeda. Michael F. Green has been a paid consultant for a consultant for AiCure, Takeda, and Lundbeck, a member of the Scientific Board of Cadent, and has received unrelated research support from Forum. Michael F. Green and Keith Nuechterlein are officers within MATRICS Assessment, Inc., the publisher of the MCCB, but do not receive any financial remuneration for their respective roles. Keith Nuechterlein has been a consultant to Genentech, Janssen, Otsuka, and Takeda, and has received unrelated research grants from Genentech, Janssen Scientific Affairs and Posit Science. All the other authors do not have any conflict of interest.
This study was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health R01MH095878 to MFG. The funder did not play any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
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- bipolar disorder
- fMRI adaptation
- neural tuning
- object processing