Tropical fluvio-lacustrine depositional processes along the toe of the Paraguay fluvial megafan were investigated with a focus on Lake Uberaba (LU), the largest lake in the Pantanal wetlands. A limnogeological analysis of LU was conducted using remote sensing imagery, lake water chemistry, sedimentological and radiochemical data from lake floor samples and short cores. Echo-sounding revealed that LU is deepest (Zmax = ~3.5 m) near its southern shoreline and outlet; the lake is hydrologically open throughout the year and is characterized by a dilute Ca+2-Na+-HCO3 − chemistry. Key environmental controls on sedimentation in LU include inflowing transverse and axial rivers and water level changes, which influence the composition, mixing, accumulation, and the organization of facies. Structureless brown sandy silts with relatively low organic carbon (TOCmean = ~1.7 wt%) and low to moderate biogenic silica (BiSimean = ~1.9 wt%) comprise most offshore lake floor sediments, whereas northern lake margin sediments consist of peaty silts and sandy silts whose origins are linked to inflowing Paraguay megafan distributary channels. Sediment core stratigraphy revealed that extant lacustrine deposits are underlain by oxidized clayey silts and sands, suggesting recent subaerial exposure of the basin floor. Sedimentary datasets conclusively suggest that LU is a shallow overfilled lake basin that is strongly influenced as a depositional system by its persistently open hydrology, shoreline channel density, and absence of margin coincident topography. This study provides new insights on lacustrine landform development in distal megafan settings, which is important for improving our understanding of fluvial landscapes.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This project was funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation (# 1541247 ) and the National Geographic Society (# 9797-15 ). Lo acknowledges the Fulbright U.S. Student Program , GSA , and LacCore for funding. EMBRAPA -Pantanal ( SEG 03.17.00.047.00.00 ), the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS)—Pantanal, UNESP -Rio Claro on FAPESP project 2014/06889-2 , FUNDECT (project 083/2016 ), and CNPq (processes 447402/2014-5 and 448923/2014-9 ) provided additional support. Silva (312386/2014-1), and Assine (308563/2013-1) are fellows of CNPq (140334/2015-7) and Macedo was a postdoctoral scholar (169329/2017-8). We thank LacCore for core curation. We are grateful to J. Antunes, A. Siqueira (ECOA), and the 7th Brazilian Army Border Battalion—Porto Índio for facilitating fieldwork. The assistance of J. Lucas, B. Hodelka, W. Ji, J. Eddy, K. Schindler, S. Swick, J. Backus, A. Connor, J. Campos de Oliveira, A. Bueno Sobrinho, M. Davina Ramos dos Santos, E. do Amaral Costa, L. Escalante Pereira, E. Santos da Silva, B. Lima de Paula Silva, L. Luz and G. Rasbold was invaluable to the project. We thank T. Chakraborty and P. Sahoo, whose reviews improved the quality of the final manuscript.
© 2019 Elsevier B.V.
Copyright 2019 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Distributive fluvial system
- Pantanal wetlands
- Siliciclastic sediments