Flexible Energy Management Protocol for Cooperative EV-to-EV Charging

Rongqing Zhang, Xiang Cheng, Liuqing Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


In this paper, we investigate flexible power transfer among electric vehicles (EVs) from a cooperative perspective in an EV system. First, the concept of cooperative EV-to-EV (V2V) charging is introduced, which enables active cooperation via charging/discharging operations between EVs as energy consumers and EVs as energy providers. Then, based on the cooperative V2V charging concept, a flexible energy management protocol with different V2V matching algorithms is proposed, which can help the EVs achieve more flexible and smarter charging/discharging behaviors. In the proposed energy management protocol, we define the utilities of the EVs based on the cost and profit through cooperative V2V charging and employ the bipartite graph to model the charging/discharging cooperation between EVs as energy consumers and EVs as energy providers. Based on the constructed bipartite graph, a max-weight V2V matching algorithm is proposed in order to optimize the network social welfare. Moreover, taking individual rationality into consideration, we further introduce the stable matching concepts and propose two stable V2V matching algorithms, which can yield the EV-consumer-optimal and EV-provider-optimal stable V2V matchings, respectively. Simulation results verify the efficiency of our proposed cooperative V2V charging-based energy management protocol in improving the EV utilities and the network social welfare as well as reducing the energy consumption of the EVs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8357927
Pages (from-to)172-184
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • cooperative V2V charging
  • Electric vehicles
  • energy management
  • matching theory

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