In this paper, we investigate flexible power transfer among electric vehicles (EVs) from a cooperative perspective in an EV system. First, the concept of cooperative EV-to-EV (V2V) charging is introduced, which enables active cooperation via charging/discharging operations between EVs as energy consumers and EVs as energy providers. Then, based on the cooperative V2V charging concept, a flexible energy management protocol with different V2V matching algorithms is proposed, which can help the EVs achieve more flexible and smarter charging/discharging behaviors. In the proposed energy management protocol, we define the utilities of the EVs based on the cost and profit through cooperative V2V charging and employ the bipartite graph to model the charging/discharging cooperation between EVs as energy consumers and EVs as energy providers. Based on the constructed bipartite graph, a max-weight V2V matching algorithm is proposed in order to optimize the network social welfare. Moreover, taking individual rationality into consideration, we further introduce the stable matching concepts and propose two stable V2V matching algorithms, which can yield the EV-consumer-optimal and EV-provider-optimal stable V2V matchings, respectively. Simulation results verify the efficiency of our proposed cooperative V2V charging-based energy management protocol in improving the EV utilities and the network social welfare as well as reducing the energy consumption of the EVs.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems|
|State||Published - Jan 2019|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Manuscript received July 11, 2016; revised January 27, 2017, May 3, 2017, July 25, 2017, and October 25, 2017; accepted February 1, 2018. Date of publication May 11, 2018; date of current version December 21, 2018. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation of China under Grant 61622101 and Grant 61571020, in part by the Shenzhen Fundamental Research Fund under Grant KQTD2015033114415450, and in part the National Science Foundation under Grant CNS-1343189. The Associate Editor for this paper was H. A. Rakha. (Corresponding author: Xiang Cheng.) R. Zhang is with the State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China, and also with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 USA (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation of China under Grant 61622101 and Grant 61571020, in part by the Shenzhen Fundamental Research Fund under Grant KQTD2015033114415450, and in part the National Science Foundation under Grant CNS-1343189
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- Electric vehicles
- cooperative V2V charging
- energy management
- matching theory