First-trimester urinary bisphenol a concentration in relation to anogenital distance, an androgen-sensitive measure of reproductive development, in infant girls

Emily S. Barrett, Sheela Sathyanarayana, Omar Mbowe, Sally W. Thurston, Bruce B Redmon, Ruby H Nguyen, Shanna H. Swan

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Evidence from animal models suggests that prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical, is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes in females. Exposure during early gestation, a critical period for reproductive development, is of particular concern. Anogenital distance (AGD) is a sensitive biomarker of the fetal hormonal milieu and a measure of reproductive toxicity in animal models. In some studies, the daughters of BPA-exposed dams have shorter AGD than controls. Here, we investigate this relationship in humans. METHODS: BPA was assayed in first-trimester urine samples from 385 participants who delivered infant girls in a multicenter pregnancy cohort study. After birth, daughters underwent exams that included two measures of AGD (AGD-AC: distance from center of anus to clitoris; AGD-AF: distance from center of anus to fourchette). We fit linear regression models to examine the association between specific gravity–adjusted (SPG-adj) maternal BPA concentrations and infant AGD, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: BPA was detectable in 94% of women. In covariate-adjusted models fit on 381 eligible subjects, the natural logarithm of SpG-adj maternal BPA concentration was inversely associated with infant AGD-AC [β = − 0:56, 95% confidence interval (CI): −0:97, −0:15]. We observed no association between maternal BPA and infant AGD-AF. CONCLUSION: BPA may have toxic effects on the female reproductive system in humans, as it does in animal models. Higher first-trimester BPA exposure was associated with significantly shorter AGD in daughters, suggesting that BPA may alter the hormonal environment of the female fetus.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number077008
JournalEnvironmental health perspectives
Volume125
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017

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First Pregnancy Trimester
Child Development
Androgens
Nuclear Family
Animal Models
Mothers
Anal Canal
Linear Models
bisphenol A
Clitoris
Endocrine Disruptors
Pregnancy
Poisons
Fetus
Cohort Studies
Biomarkers
Urine
Parturition
Confidence Intervals

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First-trimester urinary bisphenol a concentration in relation to anogenital distance, an androgen-sensitive measure of reproductive development, in infant girls. / Barrett, Emily S.; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Mbowe, Omar; Thurston, Sally W.; Redmon, Bruce B; Nguyen, Ruby H; Swan, Shanna H.

In: Environmental health perspectives, Vol. 125, No. 7, 077008, 01.07.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "First-trimester urinary bisphenol a concentration in relation to anogenital distance, an androgen-sensitive measure of reproductive development, in infant girls",
abstract = "INTRODUCTION: Evidence from animal models suggests that prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical, is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes in females. Exposure during early gestation, a critical period for reproductive development, is of particular concern. Anogenital distance (AGD) is a sensitive biomarker of the fetal hormonal milieu and a measure of reproductive toxicity in animal models. In some studies, the daughters of BPA-exposed dams have shorter AGD than controls. Here, we investigate this relationship in humans. METHODS: BPA was assayed in first-trimester urine samples from 385 participants who delivered infant girls in a multicenter pregnancy cohort study. After birth, daughters underwent exams that included two measures of AGD (AGD-AC: distance from center of anus to clitoris; AGD-AF: distance from center of anus to fourchette). We fit linear regression models to examine the association between specific gravity–adjusted (SPG-adj) maternal BPA concentrations and infant AGD, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: BPA was detectable in 94{\%} of women. In covariate-adjusted models fit on 381 eligible subjects, the natural logarithm of SpG-adj maternal BPA concentration was inversely associated with infant AGD-AC [β = − 0:56, 95{\%} confidence interval (CI): −0:97, −0:15]. We observed no association between maternal BPA and infant AGD-AF. CONCLUSION: BPA may have toxic effects on the female reproductive system in humans, as it does in animal models. Higher first-trimester BPA exposure was associated with significantly shorter AGD in daughters, suggesting that BPA may alter the hormonal environment of the female fetus.",
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AU - Sathyanarayana, Sheela

AU - Mbowe, Omar

AU - Thurston, Sally W.

AU - Redmon, Bruce B

AU - Nguyen, Ruby H

AU - Swan, Shanna H.

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N2 - INTRODUCTION: Evidence from animal models suggests that prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical, is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes in females. Exposure during early gestation, a critical period for reproductive development, is of particular concern. Anogenital distance (AGD) is a sensitive biomarker of the fetal hormonal milieu and a measure of reproductive toxicity in animal models. In some studies, the daughters of BPA-exposed dams have shorter AGD than controls. Here, we investigate this relationship in humans. METHODS: BPA was assayed in first-trimester urine samples from 385 participants who delivered infant girls in a multicenter pregnancy cohort study. After birth, daughters underwent exams that included two measures of AGD (AGD-AC: distance from center of anus to clitoris; AGD-AF: distance from center of anus to fourchette). We fit linear regression models to examine the association between specific gravity–adjusted (SPG-adj) maternal BPA concentrations and infant AGD, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: BPA was detectable in 94% of women. In covariate-adjusted models fit on 381 eligible subjects, the natural logarithm of SpG-adj maternal BPA concentration was inversely associated with infant AGD-AC [β = − 0:56, 95% confidence interval (CI): −0:97, −0:15]. We observed no association between maternal BPA and infant AGD-AF. CONCLUSION: BPA may have toxic effects on the female reproductive system in humans, as it does in animal models. Higher first-trimester BPA exposure was associated with significantly shorter AGD in daughters, suggesting that BPA may alter the hormonal environment of the female fetus.

AB - INTRODUCTION: Evidence from animal models suggests that prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical, is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes in females. Exposure during early gestation, a critical period for reproductive development, is of particular concern. Anogenital distance (AGD) is a sensitive biomarker of the fetal hormonal milieu and a measure of reproductive toxicity in animal models. In some studies, the daughters of BPA-exposed dams have shorter AGD than controls. Here, we investigate this relationship in humans. METHODS: BPA was assayed in first-trimester urine samples from 385 participants who delivered infant girls in a multicenter pregnancy cohort study. After birth, daughters underwent exams that included two measures of AGD (AGD-AC: distance from center of anus to clitoris; AGD-AF: distance from center of anus to fourchette). We fit linear regression models to examine the association between specific gravity–adjusted (SPG-adj) maternal BPA concentrations and infant AGD, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: BPA was detectable in 94% of women. In covariate-adjusted models fit on 381 eligible subjects, the natural logarithm of SpG-adj maternal BPA concentration was inversely associated with infant AGD-AC [β = − 0:56, 95% confidence interval (CI): −0:97, −0:15]. We observed no association between maternal BPA and infant AGD-AF. CONCLUSION: BPA may have toxic effects on the female reproductive system in humans, as it does in animal models. Higher first-trimester BPA exposure was associated with significantly shorter AGD in daughters, suggesting that BPA may alter the hormonal environment of the female fetus.

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