Firework-related injuries in Tehran's Persian Wednesday Eve Festival (Chaharshanbe Soori)

Hassan Tavakoli, Patricia Khashayar, Hadi Ahmadi Amoli, Khalil Esfandiari, Hossein Ashegh, Jalal Rezaii, Javad Salimi

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22 Scopus citations


Background: Fireworks are the leading cause of injuries such as burns and amputations during the Persian Wednesday Eve Festival (Chaharshanbeh Soori). Objectives: This study was designed to explore the age of the high-risk population, the type of fireworks most frequently causing injury, the pattern of injury, and the frequency of permanent disabilities. Methods: This cohort study was performed by Tehran Emergency Medical Services at different medical centers all around Tehran, Iran, in individuals referred due to firework-related injuries during 1 month surrounding the festival in the year 2007. The following information was extracted from the patients' medical records: demographic data, the type of fireworks causing injury, the pattern and severity of the injury, the pre-hospital and hospital care provided for the patient, and the patient's condition at the time of discharge. In addition, information on the severity of the remaining disability was recorded 8 months after the injury. Results: There were 197 patients enrolled in the study with a mean age of 20.94 ± 11.31 years; the majority of them were male. Fuse-detonated noisemakers and homemade grenades were the most frequent causes of injury. Hand injury was reported in 39.8% of the cases. Amputation and long-term disability were found in 6 and 12 cases, respectively. None of the patients died during the study period. Conclusion: The fireworks used during a Chaharshanbe Soori ceremony were responsible for a considerable number of injuries to different parts of the body, and some of them led to permanent disabilities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)340-345
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Emergency Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Chaharshanbeh Soori
  • fireworks
  • Persian Wednesday Eve Festival

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