Financial impact of universal precepting in family medicine residency clinics

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Precepting methods have significant impact on the financial viability of family medicine residency programs. Following an adverse event, four University of Minnesota Family Medicine residency clinics moved from using Medicare’s Primary Care Exception (PCE) and licensure precepting (LP) to a “universal precepting” method in which preceptors see every patient face to face. Variation in the implementation of universal precepting created a natural experiment of its financial impact. METHODS: Universal precepting was implemented in October 2013 across four residency programs. Billing codes were measured 1 year before and 2.5 years after implementation by clinic and residency year. RESULTS: There were significant financial differences between clinics based on original precepting method and implementation quality of universal precepting. The clinic moving from PCE to universal precepting with excellent implementation increased higher-level billing (99214) by 8%-10%. Clinics moving from LP demonstrated wide variation ranging from an 18% increase to a 13% decrease, consistent with the implementation quality. CONCLUSIONS: Clinics transitioning from PCE to universal precepting can see a significant increase in 99214 billing. Clinics transitioning from LP to universal precepting are at significant financial risk if poorly implemented, but may see increased 99214 billing with effective implementation. This suggests that both implementation quality and original precepting method impact 99214 billing rates when transitioning to universal precepting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)24-30
Number of pages7
JournalFamily medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, Society of Teachers of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.


Dive into the research topics of 'Financial impact of universal precepting in family medicine residency clinics'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this