Field-evolved resistance to Cry1F maize by Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil

Juliano Ricardo Farias, David A. Andow, Renato Jun Horikoshi, Rodrigo José Sorgatto, Pablo Fresia, Antonio Cesar dos Santos, Celso Omoto

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346 Scopus citations


The Cry1F protein from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner expressed in event TC1507 maize (Zea mays L.) was one of the most effective ways to control Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) in Brazil. After reports of reduced effectiveness of this Bt maize event in some areas of Brazil, research was undertaken to investigate if damage to Cry1F maize was caused by resistant S.frugiperda. Additional investigations were conducted to evaluate the genetic basis of the resistance and to test if Cry1F resistant S.frugiperda selected from populations of different regions of Brazil share the same resistance locus by using complementation tests. Neonate larvae of S.frugiperda collected from TC1507 maize fields with damage in Western Bahia region in 2011 were able to survive on Cry1F maize plants under laboratory conditions and subsequently produced normal adults. Survival of Cry1F-susceptible S.frugiperda on non-Bt maize was significantly higher in leaf than plant bioassays. Resistance ratio in diet overlay bioassays was >5000-fold. A discriminating concentration of 2000ngcm-2 of Cry1F protein was defined for monitoring the frequency of resistance of S.frugiperda to Cry1F. Cry1F resistant S.frugiperda showed a recessive autosomal inheritance for alleles involved in resistance to Cry1F protein. In complementation tests, the resistant population from Western Bahia was crossed with the other seven resistant populations collected from different States of Brazil. F1 larvae from each cross had the same survival at discriminating concentration of 2000ngcm-2 of Cry1F protein, indicating that the resistance alleles in each population were likely at the same locus. Therefore, implementation of resistance management strategies is urgent to prolong the lifetime of Cry1F for controlling S.frugiperda in Brazil.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)150-158
Number of pages9
JournalCrop Protection
StatePublished - Oct 2014

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank Gary Thompson, Nick Storer and Jon Babcock for comments on the manuscript. To National Council for the Improvement of Higher Education (CAPES) 1542-12-5 for granting scholarships to the first author and to Dow AgroSciences for the Cry1F protein, bioassays material and field insect samplings.


  • Bacillus thuringiensis
  • Cry1F
  • Fall armyworm
  • Genetic basis
  • Plant survival


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