Background: Females have worse outcome than do males after coronary artery bypass grafting; however, gender effects on length of stay (LOS) outcomes, such as duration of intubation or intensive care unit (ICU) LOS, have not been evaluated previously. The authors hypothesized that adjustment for pertinent preoperative covariates would eliminate any significant effect of gender on duration of intubation, LOS in the ICU after extubation, total ICU LOS, postoperative (exclusive of ICLT) LOS, or total postoperative LOS. Methods: Patients undergoing elective or urgent primary coronary artery bypass grafting surgery at 51 academic health centers in 1995 and 1997 were studied. Unique multivariable statistical models were developed for duration of intubation, ICU LOS after extubation, total ICU LOS, and postoperative (exclusive of ICU and total) LOS to test for independent associations with gender. Preoperative but not intraoperative or postoperative variables were included in the model. P ≥ 0.01 was considered significant. Results: All LOSs were of significantly longer duration in females than in males in both the 1995 in = 1,064) and 1997 (n = 910) data collections. After covariate adjustment, female sex remained associated with significantly longer duration ICU LOS and total postoperative LOS in both the 1995 (female:male ratios 1.30:1 and 1.13:1, respectively) and the 1997 (female:male ratios 1.19:1 and 1.12:1, respectively) data sets. After covariate adjustment, duration of intubation and ICU LOS after extubation were of significantly longer duration in women than men in 1995 (female:male ratios 1.22:1 and 1.39:1, respectively), but the differences were not significant in 1997. Conclusions: Even in the context of accelerated recovery programs, these analyses show that female sex has powerful associations with increased LOS intervals for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, even after adjustment for preoperative covariates. These effects could result from differences in the ways in which men and women respond to coronary artery disease, anesthesia, and coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, or to bias on the part of healthcare workers.
- Gender effects
- Length of stay