FEMA GRAS assessment of natural flavor complexes: Origanum oil, thyme oil and related phenol derivative-containing flavoring ingredients

Samuel M. Cohen, Gerhard Eisenbrand, Shoji Fukushima, Nigel J. Gooderham, F. Peter Guengerich, Stephen S. Hecht, Ivonne M.C.M. Rietjens, Thomas J. Rosol, Jeanne M. Davidsen, Christie L. Harman, Vivian Lu, Sean V. Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

In 2015, the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) initiated a re-evaluation of the safety of over 250 natural flavor complexes (NFCs) used as flavor ingredients, mostly consisting of a variety of essential oils and botanical extracts. This publication, seventh in the series, re-evaluates NFCs with constituent profiles dominated by phenolic derivatives including carvacrol, thymol and related compounds using a constituent-based procedure first published in 2005 and updated in 2018. The procedure is based on the chemical characterization of each NFC as intended for commerce and the estimated intake of the constituent congeneric groups. The procedure applies the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept and evaluates relevant data on absorption, metabolism, genotoxic potential and toxicology of the constituent congeneric groups and the NFC under evaluation. Herein, the FEMA Expert Panel affirmed the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status of seven phenolic derivative-based NFCs, Origanum Oil (Extractive) (FEMA 2828), Savory Summer Oil (FEMA 3013), Savory Summer Oleoresin (FEMA 3014), Savory Winter Oil (FEMA 3016), Savory Winter Oleoresin (FEMA 3017), Thyme Oil (FEMA 3064) and Thyme White Oil (FEMA 3065) under their conditions of intended use as flavor ingredients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number112378
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Volume155
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was financially supported by the International Organization of the Flavor Industry (IOFI), the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association ( FEMA ) and the International Federation of Essential Oils and Aroma Trades (IFEAT).

Funding Information:
Drs. Cohen, Eisenbrand, Fukushima, Gooderham, Guengerich, Hecht, Rietjens and Rosol are members of the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association. Authors Davidsen, Harman, Lu and Taylor are employed by Verto Solutions, which provides scientific and management support services to FEMA. A full description of the conflict of interest protections and procedures used to ensure that the FEMA Expert Panel decisions are fully objective and based solely on the merits of the available information have been published (Marnett et al., 2013) and are available on the FEMA website at https://www.femaflavor.org/gras#conflict.This work was financially supported by the International Organization of the Flavor Industry (IOFI), the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) and the International Federation of Essential Oils and Aroma Trades (IFEAT).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors

Keywords

  • Essential oils
  • GRAS
  • Natural flavor complexes
  • Phenols - simple
  • Safety evaluation

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