This experiment examined the effects of feeding conditions on orally self-administered phencyclidine (PCP) or ethanol in rhesus monkeys using a behavioral economic analysis. Drug intake was measured as a function of drug cost, which was varied by changes in the fixed ratio (FR) schedule. The monkeys were trained to respond for PCP (0.25 mg/ml) or ethanol (8% wt/vol) with concurrent water available under FR 4-128 schedules. As the FR increased, drug intake decreased in a positively decelerating manner. Results suggest that food deprivation increased the reinforcement value of the drugs as well as significantly increasing consumption of both PCP and ethanol. In addition, ethanol and PCP deliveries showed proportionally greater increases due to food deprivation as FR increased. Together, these results suggest that food deprivation increases the reinforcing efficacy of drugs and this effect is enhanced as the cost (FR) of the drug increases.