Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been utilized sporadically for over 50 years. In the past few years, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) epidemics in the USA and Europe have resulted in the increased use of FMT, given its high efficacy in eradicating CDI and associated symptoms. As more patients request treatment and more clinics incorporate FMT into their treatment repertoire, reports of applications outside of CDI are emerging, paving the way for the use of FMT in several idiopathic conditions. Interest in this therapy has largely been driven by new research into the gut microbiota, which is now beginning to be appreciated as a microbial human organ with important roles in immunity and energy metabolism. This new paradigm raises the possibility that many diseases result, at least partially, from microbiota-related dysfunction. This understanding invites the investigation of FMT for several disorders, including IBD, IBS, the metabolic syndrome, neurodevelopmental disorders, autoimmune diseases and allergic diseases, among others. The field of microbiota-related disorders is currently in its infancy; it certainly is an exciting time in the burgeoning science of FMT and we expect to see new and previously unexpected applications in the near future. Well-designed and well-executed randomized trials are now needed to further define these microbiota-related conditions.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was in part supported by NIH grant R21AI091907 (A. Khoruts). The authors would like to acknowledge J. Campbell, Centre for Digestive Diseases, Sydney, Australia, for her skilled assistance in various technical aspects of manuscript preparation and editorial support.