Proteins from a field strain of Salmonella gallinarum MSG1 were compared with 9R live vaccine strain for their protection against experimental fowl typhoid in chickens. Proteins from S. gallinarum gave better protection than the 9R live vaccine as measured by clearance of challenge organism from internal organs. Proteins given twice with an adjuvant at 200 micrograms/100 g body weight resulted in 95% protection, compared with 60% protection with 9R given orally. The 9R live vaccine produced more hepatic and splenic lesions and, when administered orally as a single dose, was the least protective (60%). In the group vaccinated subcutaneously with a single dose of 9R without an adjuvant, both the challenge strain and the 9R vaccine strain were isolated from the ovaries of some birds. All chickens vaccinated with 9R strain or with proteins developed antibodies detectable by microagglutination test, and in some vaccinated groups as many as 100% of the birds developed antibody levels detected by seroagglutination.