Klaus Wilhelm, William Bernstein, Paul J. Kellogg, Brian A. Whalen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Electron beam experiments using rocketborne instrumentation have confirmed earlier observations of fast magnetospheric echoes of artificially injected energetic electrons. A total of 234 echoes have been observed in a pitch angle range from 9 degree to 110 degree at energies of 1. 87 and 3. 90 kev. Out of this number, 95 echoes could unambigously be identified with known accelerator operations at 2-, 4-, or 8-kev energy and highest current levels resulting in the determination of transit times of typically 300 to 400 ms. In most cases, when echoes were present in both energy channels, the higher-energy electrons led the lower-energy ones by 50 to 70 ms. Adiabatic theory applied to these observations yields a reflection height of 3000 to 4000 km. An alternative interpretation is briefly examined, and its relative merit in describing the observations is evaluated. The injection process is discussed in some detail.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)491-504
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research
Issue numberA1
StatePublished - Jan 1 1985

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