Fascicle-Specific Targeting of Longitudinal Intrafascicular Electrodes for Motor and Sensory Restoration in Upper-Limb Amputees

Jonathan Cheng, Zhi Yang, Cynthia K. Overstreet, Edward Keefer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations


Multichannel longitudinal intrafascicular electrode (LIFE) interfaces provide optimized balance of invasiveness and stability for chronic sensory stimulation and motor recording/decoding of peripheral nerve signals. Using a fascicle-specific targeting (FAST)-LIFE approach, where electrodes are individually placed within discrete sensory- and motor-related fascicular subdivisions of the residual ulnar and/or median nerves in an amputated upper limb, FAST-LIFE interfacing can provide discernment of motor intent for individual digit control of a robotic hand, and restoration of touch- and movement-related sensory feedback. The authors describe their findings from clinical studies performed with 6 human amputee trials using FAST-LIFE interfacing of the residual upper limb.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)401-414
Number of pages14
JournalHand Clinics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
J. Cheng and E. Keefer have ownership in Nerves Incorporated, which is a sponsor of the clinical studies described in this article using research funding provided by DARPA. Z. Yang is co-founder of, and holds equity in, Fasikl Inc, a sponsor of this project. We owe a great debt of gratitude to the wonderful patients who have given so generously of their time and their well-being by participating in this groundbreaking research. If there are heroes and angels to be found in this work, our patients deserve those accolades without any doubt. Our further efforts and our persistence in this work are now owed to them, as they have sacrificed for all amputees present and future, and we must succeed in bringing FAST-LIFE electrode interfacing to fruition as a standard-of-care clinical treatment in order to fully repay our debt to them.


  • Amputee
  • Electrical stimulation
  • Fascicle
  • Machine learning
  • Motor decoding
  • Peripheral nerve
  • Prosthetic control

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Review


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