Failure of Costimulatory Blockade-induced Regulatory T Cells to Sustain Long-term Survival of High Ischemic Allografts

Naoki Kohei, Toshiaki Tanaka, Satoshi Miyairi, Hidetoshi Tsuda, Toyofumi Abe, Charles A. Su, Danielle D. Kish, Kazunari Tanabe, Anna Valujskikh, Booki Min, Robert L. Fairchild

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Background. Costimulatory blockade-induced allograft tolerance has been achieved in rodent models, but these strategies do not translate well to nonhuman primate and clinical transplants. One confounder that may underlie this discrepancy is the greater ischemic inflammation imposed on the transplants. In mice, cardiac allografts subjected to prolonged cold ischemic storage (CIS) before transplant have increased ischemia-reperfusion injury, which amplifies infiltrating endogenous memory CD8 T-cell activation within hours after transplantation to mediate acute graft inflammation and cytotoxic lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 immunoglobulin-resistant rejection. This study tested strategies inhibiting memory CD8 T-cell activation within such high ischemic allografts to achieve long-term survival. Methods. A/J (H-2a) hearts subjected to 0.5 or 8 h of CIS were transplanted to C57BL/6 (H-2b) recipients and treatment with peritransplant costimulatory blockade. At 60 d posttransplant, regulatory T cells (Treg) were depleted in recipients of high ischemic allografts with anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody (mAb) or diphtheria toxin. Results. Whereas peritransplant (days 0 and +1) anti-lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 mAb and anti-CD154 mAb prolonged survival of >60% allografts subjected to minimal CIS for >100 d, only 20% of allografts subjected to prolonged CIS survived beyond day 80 posttransplant and rejection was accompanied by high titers of donor-specific antibody. Peritransplant anti-lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, anti-tumor necrosis factor-α, and anti-CD154 mAb plus additional anti-CD154 mAb on days 14 and 16 obviated this donor-specific antibody and promoted Treg-mediated tolerance and survival of 60% of high ischemic allografts beyond day 100 posttransplant, but all allografts failed by day 120. Conclusions. These studies indicate a strategy inducing prolonged high ischemic allograft survival through Treg-mediated tolerance that is not sustained indefinitely.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1935-1944
Number of pages10
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2023
Externally publishedYes

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