The objective of the current retrospective cohort study was to identify vascular and/or neuropsychiatric risk factors predicting clinical progression in persons with subjective cognitive decline (SCD). Information on 1,525 persons with SCD (mean age = 73.8 [SD = 8.1] years) was obtained from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center. Clinical progression occurred from SCD to either amnestic mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's dementia over an average of 4.7 (SD = 2.9) years. Stepwise Cox regression was used. Compared to obesity (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.59) in the univariate unadjusted model, obesity (HR = 0.64), current smoking (HR = 2.02), and depressive symptoms (HR = 1.35) were significant after adjusting for covariates in the univariate model. In the multivariate adjusted model, obesity (HR = 0.64), current smoking (HR = 2.04), and depressive symptoms (HR = 1.36) remained significant predictors. Interventions should be designed to minimize transition by managing smoking and depressive symptoms. Further research is required for associations between obesity and clinical progression to test the hypothesis of obesity paradox.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors wish to thank Drs. Ruth Lindquist and John Connett for their feedback. The National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center (NACC) database is funded by National Institute on Aging (NIA)/National Institutes of Health Grant U01 AG016976. NACC data are contributed by the NIA-funded Alzheimer’s Disease Centers: P30 AG019610 (Principal Investigator [PI] Eric Reiman, MD), P30 AG013846 (PI Neil Kowall, MD), P50 AG008702 (PI Scott Small, MD), P50 AG025688 (PI Allan Levey, MD, PhD), P50 AG047266 (PI Todd Golde, MD, PhD), P30 AG010133 (PI Andrew Saykin, PsyD), P50 AG005146 (PI Marilyn Albert, PhD), P50 AG005134 (PI Bradley Hyman, MD, PhD), P50 AG016574 (PI Ronald Petersen, MD, PhD), P50 AG005138 (PI Mary Sano, PhD), P30 AG008051 (PI Thomas Wisniewski, MD), P30 AG013854 (PI M. Marsel Mesulam, MD), P30 AG008017 (PI Jeffrey Kaye, MD), P30 AG010161 (PI David Bennett, MD), P50 AG047366 (PI Victor Henderson, MD, MS), P30 AG010129 (PI Charles DeCarli, MD), P50 AG016573 (PI Frank LaFerla, PhD), P50 AG005131 (PI James Brewer, MD, PhD), P50 AG023501 (PI Bruce Miller, MD), P30 AG035982 (PI Russell Swerdlow, MD), P30 AG028383 (PI Linda Van Eldik, PhD), P30 AG053760 (PI Henry Paulson, MD, PhD), P30 AG010124 (PI John Trojanowski, MD, PhD), P50 AG005133 (PI Oscar Lopez, MD), P50 AG005142 (PI Helena Chui, MD), P30 AG012300 (PI Roger Rosenberg, MD), P30 AG049638 (PI Suzanne Craft, PhD), P50 AG005136 (PI Thomas Grabowski, MD), P50 AG033514 (PI Sanjay Asthana, MD, FRCP), P50 AG005681 (PI John Morris, MD), P50 AG047270 (PI Stephen Strittmatter, MD, PhD). © 2020 Ahn, Mathiason, Salisbury, Yu; licensee SLACK Incorporated. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0). This license allows users to copy and distribute, to remix, transform, and build upon the article non-commercially, provided the author is attributed and the new work is non-commercial.
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