Factors predicting episodic memory changes in older adults with subjective cognitive decline: A longitudinal observational study

Sangwoo Ahn, Michelle A. Mathiason, Ruth Lindquist, Fang Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Episodic memory is affected early in the neuropathological process of Alzheimer's dementia. This study was performed to identify longitudinal associations between baseline vascular/neuropsychiatric risk factors and episodic memory changes over 4.1 ± 2.4 years in 1,401 older adults with subjective cognitive decline (age 74.0 ± 8.2 years). Data were from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center-Uniform Data Set and linear mixed effects regression models were used. Reference was those without risk factors. Participants with hypercholesterolemia and with former cigarette smoking had higher episodic memory scores, but current smokers had fewer points than reference at their first and follow-up visits. Despite no difference at baseline, episodic memory scores decreased in those with depressive symptoms relative to reference over time. In older adults with subjective cognitive decline, interventions managing current smoking and depressive symptoms could preserve episodic memory, which may result in delaying the onset of Alzheimer's dementia. Further research is required for the role of cholesterol and smoking.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)268-275
Number of pages8
JournalGeriatric Nursing
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The authors are thankful for the feedback from Drs. John Connett and Dereck Salisbury. The NACC database is funded by NIA/NIH Grant U01 AG016976. NACC data are contributed by the NIA-funded ADCs: P30 AG019610 (PI Eric Reiman, MD), P30 AG013846 (PI Neil Kowall, MD), P50 AG008702 (PI Scott Small, MD), P50 AG025688 (PI Allan Levey, MD, PhD), P50 AG047266 (PI Todd Golde, MD, PhD), P30 AG010133 (PI Andrew Saykin, PsyD), P50 AG005146 (PI Marilyn Albert, PhD), P50 AG005134 (PI Bradley Hyman, MD, PhD), P50 AG016574 (PI Ronald Petersen, MD, PhD), P50 AG005138 (PI Mary Sano, PhD), P30 AG008051 (PI Thomas Wisniewski, MD), P30 AG013854 (PI M. Marsel Mesulam, MD), P30 AG008017 (PI Jeffrey Kaye, MD), P30 AG010161 (PI David Bennett, MD), P50 AG047366 (PI Victor Henderson, MD, MS), P30 AG010129 (PI Charles DeCarli, MD), P50 AG016573 (PI Frank LaFerla, PhD), P50 AG005131 (PI James Brewer, MD, PhD), P50 AG023501 (PI Bruce Miller, MD), P30 AG035982 (PI Russell Swerdlow, MD), P30 AG028383 (PI Linda Van Eldik, PhD), P30 AG053760 (PI Henry Paulson, MD, PhD), P30 AG010124 (PI John Trojanowski, MD, PhD), P50 AG005133 (PI Oscar Lopez, MD), P50 AG005142 (PI Helena Chui, MD), P30 AG012300 (PI Roger Rosenberg, MD), P30 AG049638 (PI Suzanne Craft, PhD), P50 AG005136 (PI Thomas Grabowski, MD), P50 AG033514 (PI Sanjay Asthana, MD, FRCP), P50 AG005681 (PI John Morris, MD), P50 AG047270 (PI Stephen Strittmatter, MD, PhD).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Inc.


  • Alzheimer's dementia
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Depressive symptoms
  • Episodic memory
  • Hypercholesterolemia
  • Subjective cognitive decline

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural


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