Fundamental differences were previously discovered in the ADP-ribosylation of proteins from metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei of HeLa cells. The number of modified nonhistone species was found to be dramatically reduced for metaphase chromosomes. An investigation has therefore been made of factors which could influence, and therefore be responsible for, this change in ADP-ribosylation during the cell cycle. Modified proteins were detected by autoradiography of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels containing mitotic and interphase samples from permeabilized cells that had been incubated with [32P]NAD. Whole cells showed a difference between interphase and metaphase similar to that for isolated nuclei and chromosomes. Chromosome expansion, disruption of chromosomes or nuclei, DNA nicking, and cellular growth activity significantly changed the incorporation of 32P label. Inhibitors of protein, RNA, and DNA synthesis did not, however, greatly affect ADP-ribosylation. The pattern of labeled species was not altered by the presence of nonradioactive NAD, though the extent of labeling declined. The results were not artifactually due to the procedure used to arrest cells in mitosis. Similar results were found with Novikoff rat hepatoma cells, demonstrating that the difference between metaphase and interphase is not confined to HeLa Cells.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
was supported Foundation Institutes