Factors Associated with Age-Related Declines in Cardiorespiratory Fitness from Early Adulthood Through Midlife: CARDIA

Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Byron C. Jaeger, Barbara Sternfeld, Erin E. Dooley, Mercedes R. Carnethon, David R. Jacobs, Cora E. Lewis, Bjoern Hornikel, Jared P. Reis, Pamela J. Schreiner, James M. Shikany, Kara M. Whitaker, Stephen Sidney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe maximal and submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness from early adulthood to midlife and examine differences in maximal fitness at age 20 yr and changes in fitness overtime by subcategories of sociodemographic, behavioral, and health-related factors.

METHODS: Data include 5018 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults participants (mean (SD) age, 24.8 (3.7) yr; 53.3% female; and 51.4% Black participants) who completed at least one maximal graded exercise test at baseline and/or the year 7 and 20 exams. Maximal and submaximal fitness were estimated by exercise duration and heart rate at the end of stage 2. Multivariable adjusted linear-mixed models were used to estimate fitness trajectories using age as the mechanism for time after adjustment for covariates. Fitness trajectories from ages 20 to 50 yr in 5-yr increments were estimated overall and by subgroups determined by each factor after adjustment for duration within the less favorable category.

RESULTS: Mean (95% confidence interval) maximal fitness at age 20 and 50 yr was 613 (607-616) and 357 (350-362) s; submaximal heart rate during this period also reflected age-related fitness declines (126 (125-127) and 138 (137-138) bpm). Compared with men, women had lower maximal fitness at age 20 yr (P < 0.001), which persisted over follow-up (P < 0.001); differences were also found by race within sex strata (all P < 0.001). Differences in maximal fitness at age 20 yr were noted by socioeconomic, behavioral, and health-related status in young adulthood (all P < 0.05), which persisted over follow-up (all P < 0.001) and were generally consistent in sex-stratified analyses.

CONCLUSIONS: Targeting individuals experiencing accelerated fitness declines with tailored intervention strategies may provide an opportunity to preserve fitness throughout midlife to reduce lifetime cardiovascular disease risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1147-1154
Number of pages8
JournalMedicine and science in sports and exercise
Volume54
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The CARDIA study is conducted and supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in collaboration with the University of Alabama at Birmingham (HHSN268201800005I and HHSN268201800007I), the Northwestern University (HHSN268201800003I), the University of Minnesota (HHSN268201800006I), and Kaiser Foundation Research Institute (HHSN268201800004I). This manuscript has been reviewed by CARDIA for scientific content. Additional support for this work was provided by the CARDIA Fitness Study (R01 HL078972 to B. S. and S. S.) and the CARDIA Activity and Heart Failure Study (R01 HL149796 to K. P. G.). The views expressed in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; the National Institutes of Health; or the US Department of Health and Human Services.

Funding Information:
The CARDIA study is conducted and supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in collaboration with the University of Alabama at Birmingham (HHSN268201800005I and HHSN268201800007I), the Northwestern University (HHSN268201800003I), the University of Minnesota (HHSN268201800006I), and Kaiser Foundation Research Institute (HHSN268201800004I). This manuscript has been reviewed by CARDIA for scientific content. Additional support for this work was provided by the CARDIA Fitness Study (R01 HL078972 to B. S. and S. S.) and the CARDIA Activity and Heart Failure Study (R01 HL149796 to K. P. G.). The views expressed in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; the National Institutes of Health; or the US Department of Health and Human Services

Publisher Copyright:
© Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Keywords

  • EXERCISE TEST
  • FOLLOW-UP STUDIES
  • MIDDLE LIFE
  • YOUNG ADULT
  • Physical Fitness/physiology
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Male
  • Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology
  • Young Adult
  • Exercise Test
  • Exercise
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Health Status

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

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