Factors affecting strength and durability of densified biomass products

Nalladurai Kaliyan, R. Vance Morey

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

752 Scopus citations

Abstract

Effectiveness of a densification process to create strong and durable bonding in densified products such as pellets, briquettes, and cubes can be determined by testing the strength (i.e., compressive resistance, impact resistance, and water resistance), and durability (i.e., abrasion resistance) of the densified products. These tests can indicate the maximum force/stress that the densified products can withstand, and the amount of fines produced during handling, transportation, and storage. In this article, the procedures used for measuring the strength and durability of the densified products are discussed. The effects of constituents of the feed such as starch, protein, fiber, fat, lignin and extractives; feed moisture content; feed particle size and its distribution; feed conditioning temperature/preheating of feed; added binders; and densification equipment variables (forming pressure, and pellet mill and roll press variables) on the strength and durability of the densified products are reviewed. This article will help select process parameters to produce strong and durable densified products from new biomass feedstocks or animal feed formulations. Guidelines for developing standards on criteria for the acceptance levels of strength and durability of the densified products are presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)337-359
Number of pages23
JournalBiomass and Bioenergy
Volume33
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2009

Keywords

  • Biomass
  • Briquettes
  • Cubes
  • Densification
  • Durability
  • Feed
  • Pellets
  • Strength

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