Factor analysis and scale revision

Steven P. Reise, Niels G. Waller, Andrew L. Comrey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

485 Scopus citations


This article reviews methodological issues that arise in the application of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to scale revision and refinement. The authors begin by discussing how the appropriate use of EFA in scale revision is influenced by both the hierarchical nature of psychological constructs and the motivations underlying the revision. Then they specifically address (a) important issues that arise prior to data collection (e.g., selecting an appropriate sample), (b) technical aspects of factor analysis (e.g., determining the number of factors to retain), and (c) procedures used to evaluate the outcome of the scale revision (e.g., determining whether the new measure functions equivalently for different populations).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)287-297
Number of pages11
JournalPsychological assessment
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 2000


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