Fabrication of 3.01% power conversion efficient high-quality CZTS thin film solar cells by a green and simple sol-gel technique

G. L. Agawane, A. S. Kamble, S. A. Vanalakar, S. W. Shin, M. G. Gang, Jae Ho Yun, Jihye Gwak, A. V. Moholkar, Jin Hyeok Kim

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59 Scopus citations


Fine quality Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were prepared by a non-toxic, simple and economical sol-gel and spin-coating technique. The CZTS thin films were prepared on Molybdenum coated soda lime glass substrates. The films were annealed at three different temperatures viz. 525, 550 and 575 °C under H2S gas atmosphere to study the effect of annealing temperature on the morphological, structural, chemical, compositional, optical and photovoltaic properties of the CZTS thin films. The X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy investigations on the CZTS thin films showed formation of the pure kesterite structure. The X-ray fluorescence studies demonstrated that all the CZTS thin films were nearly stoichiometric having Zn rich composition. All the annealed films were further subjected to fabrication of solar cells as an SLG/Mo/CZTS/CdS/i-ZnO/AZO/Al grid. The best solar cell showed a short-circuit current density of 14.57 mA/cm2, open-circuit voltage of 513 mV, fill factor of 40% and power conversion efficiency of 3.01% under air mass 1.5 (100 mW/cm2) illumination.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)58-61
Number of pages4
JournalMaterials Letters
StatePublished - Jun 8 2015

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Human Resources Development program (No. 20124010203180 ) of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) Grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy .

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


  • Benign synthesis
  • CZTS
  • Power conversion efficiency
  • Solar cells
  • Spin-coating


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