Fabrication and utility of a transparent graphene neural electrode array for electrophysiology, in vivo imaging, and optogenetics

Dong Wook Park, Sarah K. Brodnick, Jared P. Ness, Farid Atry, Lisa Krugner-Higby, Amelia Sandberg, Solomon Mikael, Thomas J. Richner, Joseph Novello, Hyungsoo Kim, Dong Hyun Baek, Jihye Bong, Seth T. Frye, Sanitta Thongpang, Kyle I. Swanson, Wendell Lake, Ramin Pashaie, Justin C. Williams, Zhenqiang Ma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

101 Scopus citations


Transparent graphene-based neural electrode arrays provide unique opportunities for simultaneous investigation of electrophysiology, various neural imaging modalities, and optogenetics. Graphene electrodes have previously demonstrated greater broad-wavelength transmittance (â 1/490%) than other transparent materials such as indium tin oxide (â 1/480%) and ultrathin metals (â 1/460%). This protocol describes how to fabricate and implant a graphene-based microelectrocorticography (μECoG) electrode array and subsequently use this alongside electrophysiology, fluorescence microscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and optogenetics. Further applications, such as transparent penetrating electrode arrays, multi-electrode electroretinography, and electromyography, are also viable with this technology. The procedures described herein, from the material characterization methods to the optogenetic experiments, can be completed within 3-4 weeks by an experienced graduate student. These protocols should help to expand the boundaries of neurophysiological experimentation, enabling analytical methods that were previously unachievable using opaque metal-based electrode arrays.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2201-2222
Number of pages22
JournalNature Protocols
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2016

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