Transparent graphene-based neural electrode arrays provide unique opportunities for simultaneous investigation of electrophysiology, various neural imaging modalities, and optogenetics. Graphene electrodes have previously demonstrated greater broad-wavelength transmittance (â 1/490%) than other transparent materials such as indium tin oxide (â 1/480%) and ultrathin metals (â 1/460%). This protocol describes how to fabricate and implant a graphene-based microelectrocorticography (μECoG) electrode array and subsequently use this alongside electrophysiology, fluorescence microscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and optogenetics. Further applications, such as transparent penetrating electrode arrays, multi-electrode electroretinography, and electromyography, are also viable with this technology. The procedures described herein, from the material characterization methods to the optogenetic experiments, can be completed within 3-4 weeks by an experienced graduate student. These protocols should help to expand the boundaries of neurophysiological experimentation, enabling analytical methods that were previously unachievable using opaque metal-based electrode arrays.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
National Institutes of Health (NIH NIBIB 1R01EB009103-01
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