Multiple myeloma (MM) remains a largely incurable hematologic cancer due to an inability to broadly target inevitable drug-resistant relapse. Epigenetic abnormalities are abundantly present in multiple myeloma and have increasingly demonstrated critical roles for tumor development and relapse to standard therapies. Accumulating evidence suggests that the histone methyltransferase EZH2 is aberrantly active in MM. We tested the efficacy of EZH2 specific inhibitors in a large panel of human MM cell lines (HMCLs) and found that only a subset of HMCLs demonstrate single agent sensitivity despite ubiquitous global H3K27 demethylation. Pre-treatment with EZH2 inhibitors greatly enhanced the sensitivity of HMCLs to the pan-HDAC inhibitor panobinostat in nearly all cases regardless of single agent EZH2 inhibitor sensitivity. Transcriptomic profiling revealed large-scale transcriptomic alteration by EZH2 inhibition highly enriched for cancer-related pathways. Combination treatment greatly increased the scale of gene expression change with a large portion of differentially expressed genes being unique to the combination. Transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that combination treatment further perturbed oncogenic pathways and signaling nodes consistent with an antiproliferative/pro-apoptotic state. We conclude that combined inhibition of HDAC and EZH2 inhibitors is a promising therapeutic strategy to broadly target the epigenetic landscape of aggressive MM.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We gratefully acknowledge the expert technical support provided by the University of Minnesota Genomics Center. We gratefully acknowledge the laboratory of Jonathan Keats, Ph.D. for information provided regarding human myeloma cell line mutation/ translocation statuses.
© Harding et al.