Extragenital Screening for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Among Adolescents and Young Adults at a Sexual Health Clinic

Hanna Middlebrook, Maria Ruud

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objective: To increase screening rates for oropharyngeal and rectal (extragenital) chlamydia and gonorrhea infections among adolescents and young adults by 20% and for 90% of nurses to demonstrate a change in behavior and knowledge surrounding extragenital screening. Design: A pre- and posttest design to evaluate nurse knowledge and the percentage of extragenital chlamydia and gonorrhea screenings completed before and after a 2-month intervention period. Setting: Reproductive health clinic for adolescents and young adults up to age 25 years in the Twin Cities metropolitan area of Minnesota. Participants: Four registered nurses who provide direct client care at the identified sexual and reproductive health clinic. Intervention/Measurements: We implemented an education session for four staff nurses, a standardized sexual history taking tool, and protocols for obtaining oropharyngeal and rectal specimens. We measured extragenital chlamydia and gonorrhea screening rates, as well as knowledge and behavior change among registered nurses. Results: Data came from records for 623 individuals who were deemed at risk for extragenital chlamydia and gonorrhea infection. Extragenital chlamydia and gonorrhea screening rates increased by more than 700% from before to after the intervention. Five out of nine (55.6%) extragenital chlamydia and gonorrhea infections diagnosed would have been missed with urogenital screening alone. One hundred percent of nurses demonstrated an increase in their knowledge of the 5 P's of sexual health (Partners, Practices, Protection from sexually transmitted infections, Past history of STIs, and Prevention of pregnancy) to conduct a risk assessment, the eligibility criteria for extragenital testing, and the actual collection processes of pharyngeal and rectal swabs. Conclusion: Use of evidence-based recommendations and a collaborative team facilitated a more consistent approach to the assessment and diagnosis of extragenital chlamydia and gonorrhea infections. Generalizability is limited to the project site; however, this process could be implemented in other clinics to determine if similar results can be achieved.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)267-276
Number of pages10
JournalNursing for Women's Health
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 AWHONN


  • STI
  • adolescent
  • chlamydia
  • extragenital
  • gonorrhea
  • screening
  • sexually transmitted infection
  • swabbing


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