Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is employed to rescue patients with early graft dysfunction after lung transplantation (LTx). Rates of post-LTx ECMO and subsequent outcomes have been limited to single-center reports. Methods: UNOS registry was queried for LTx recipients from March 2015 to March 2016; 2,001 recipients were identified and stratified by need for post-LTx ECMO. Logistic regression was used to determine variables associated with post-LTx ECMO. Cox proportional hazards modeling identified factors associated with survival. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank testing was employed for survival analysis. Results: Of 2,001 recipients identified, 107 required post-LTx ECMO (5.1%). Recipients requiring ECMO were younger (56 vs 60 years, p = 0.007) and had higher body mass index (27.2 vs 25.8, p = 0.012). Recipients requiring post-LTx ECMO were more likely to have required mechanical ventilation before transplant (9.3% vs 4.9%, p = 0.049) and were more likely to have required pre-transplant ECMO (15% vs 3.7%, p < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, pre-transplant ECMO and increasing ischemic time were associated with post-LTx ECMO. Six-month survival for recipients requiring ECMO was 62.2%. On multivariable analysis, need for post-transplant dialysis was associated with mortality. Six-month survival for recipients requiring ECMO with and without dialysis was 25.8% and 86.7% (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In a nationally representative database, ischemic time and pre-transplant ECMO and/or ventilator requirement were associated with need for post-LTx ECMO. Need for post-transplant dialysis was associated with mortality in patients requiring post-LTx ECMO. These data may permit improved prediction of graft dysfunction. Strategies to minimize renal toxicity in the perioperative phase may lead to improved early survival post-LTx.
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© 2018 International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation
- donor factors
- lung transplantation
- predictors of survival
- primary graft dysfunction