Normal and pathologic cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EV), which are defined as 30-2,000 nm spherical organelles. It has been found that EV mediate various biological functions including cellular remodeling and export of biomolecules, extracellular communication, immune stimulation and suppression, and modulation of the cellular microenvironment. EV secreted by human glioma cells contain a wealth of tumor-specific proteins and nucleic acids that can be isolated from patients with these neoplasms. Thus, EV contribute to the development of biomarkers, and additionally have certain therapeutic potential for possible use in neuro-oncology and neurosurgery.
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