Extracardiac features of heart failure: Catecholamines and hormonal changes

Gary S. Francis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Congestive heart failure is a very complex clinical syndrome characterized by a number of important extracardiac features. In an attempt to maintain circulatory homeostasis, there is activation of a number of vasopressor/Na+ retentive forces. Plasma levels of angiotensin, norepinephrine and vasopressin rise, likely contributing to heightened peripheral resistance and antidiuresis. These forces appear to be offset to some extent by vasodilator/Na+ excretion activity in the form of increased prostaglandins, atrial natriuretic factor, and dopamine. There is a complex interplay between these neurohumoral systems in heart failure which is just beginning to be understood.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19-29
Number of pages11
JournalCardiology (Switzerland)
StatePublished - 1988


  • Angiotensin
  • Atrial natriuretic factor
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Dopamine
  • Norepinephrine
  • Prostaglandins
  • Vasopressin


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