Extending the Direct Behavior Rating: An Examination of Schoolwide Behavior Ratings and Academic Engagement

Allison Bruhn, Sheila Barron, Josephine Fernando, Kinga Balint-Langel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Direct behavior ratings have been identified as a practical and feasible alternative to direct observation of behavior for monitoring behavioral progress. Despite the evidence of usability, there have been calls for further examination of direct behavior ratings using different behaviors and scales. To this end, we examined the ratings of schoolwide behavioral expectations by teachers and outside observers, as well as direct observation of academic engagement by outside observers in upper elementary school language arts classrooms. Across sessions, correlations between raters (range r =.82–.91) and between measures (range r =.64–.98) were moderate to high; significant differences between raters existed when rating students identified with negative behavior (n = 12) as opposed to positive behavior (n = 12). Findings are discussed in terms of implications for research and practice, limitations of the study, and the necessity for further research and development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)31-42
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Positive Behavior Interventions
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding for this study was provided by the Iowa Measurement Research Foundation (Number: F097700-G)

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017, © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2017.


  • PBIS
  • academic engagement
  • direct behavior rating
  • validity


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