Expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C and a frameshift mutation of this gene on chromosome 20 differentiate a summer and winter annual biotype of Camelina sativa

James V. Anderson, David P. Horvath, Münevver Doğramaci, Kevin M. Dorn, Wun S. Chao, Erin E. Watkin, Alvaro G. Hernandez, M. David Marks, Russ Gesch

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22 Scopus citations


The nature of the vegetative to reproductive transition in the shoot apical meristem of Camelina sativa summer annual cultivar CO46 and winter annual cultivar Joelle was confirmed by treating seedlings with or without 8 weeks of vernalization. True to their life cycle classification, Joelle required a vernalization treatment to induce bolting and flowering, whereas CO46 did not. In this study, whole genome sequence, RNAseq, and resequencing of PCR-amplified transcripts for a key floral repressor were used to better understand factors involved in the flowering habit of summer and winter biotypes at the molecular level. Analysis of transcriptome data indicated that abundance for one of the three genes encoding the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC; Csa20 g015400) was 16-fold greater in Joelle compared to CO46 prior to vernalization. Abundance of this transcript decreased only slightly in CO46 postvernalization, compared to a substantial decrease in Joelle. The results observed in the winter annual biotype Joelle are consistent with repression of FLC by vernalization. Further characterization of FLC at both the genome and transcriptome levels identified a one base deletion in the 5th exon coding for a keratin-binding domain in chromosome 20 of CO46 and Joelle. The one base deletion detected in chromosome 20 FLC is predicted to result in a frameshift that would produce a nonfunctional protein. Analysis of whole genome sequence indicated that the one base deletion in chromosome 20 FLC occurred at a greater ratio in the summer biotype CO46 (2:1) compared to the winter biotype Joelle (1:4); similar trends were also observed for RNAseq and cDNA transcripts mapping to chromosome 20 FLC of CO46 and Joelle.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere00060
JournalPlant Direct
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Plant Direct published by American Society of Plant Biologists, Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


  • camelina
  • flowering time
  • genomics
  • vernalization


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