Exploring the moderating role of job resources in how job demands influence burnout and professional fulfillment among U.S. pharmacists

Olajide O. Fadare, William R. Doucette, Caroline A. Gaither, Jon C Schommer, Vibhuti Arya, Brianne K. Bakken, David H. Kreling, David A. Mott, Matthew J. Witry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: Job stress, burnout, and fulfillment can be modeled using the Job Demands and Resources model (JD-R). Objective: This study explores the relationship between job demands and burnout and professional fulfillment in pharmacists, and the moderating role of job resources. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2019 National Pharmacist Workforce Survey of a random sample of U.S. licensed pharmacists. The survey assessed pharmacist demographics (age, gender, and work setting), job demands (workload and work-home conflict), job resources (job control, time spent in various work activities, and social support), as well as burnout and professional fulfillment. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between job demands-resources variables and pharmacists’ professional fulfillment and burnout. Moderation was assessed by including interaction terms (job demands x job resources) in the regression models. The change in marginal mean burnout and professional fulfillment for different combinations of job demands and job resources was used to assess the salience of significant moderation effects. Results: Women and community pharmacists accounted for 64.8% and 45.8% of the study sample, respectively. Age was negatively associated with burnout. Job demands were positively associated with burnout and negatively associated with professional fulfillment, and the converse was true for job resources. Significant moderation effects were observed for 7 out of 12 interaction terms assessed. The moderating effect of job resources was more salient under varying conditions of job demands in 5 out of 7 instances where significant interaction effects were observed. Conclusion: While pharmacist characteristics explained a significant amount of variation in burnout and professional fulfillment, also considering the moderating effects of job resources on the association of job demands with burnout and professional fulfillment identified additional information, such as the increased importance of job control and task variety in high workload environments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3821-3830
Number of pages10
JournalResearch in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by the Pharmacy Workforce Center, Inc.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022


  • Burnout
  • Fulfillment
  • Job demands-resources
  • Moderation
  • Pharmacist
  • Well-being

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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