Exploring the Factor Structure of the RTI Readiness and Implementation Survey

Chung Hau Fan, Yanchen Zhang, Clayton R. Cook, Nai Jiin Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Response to intervention (RtI) models have increasingly been adopted to improve outcomes for all students through the delivery of a continuum of supports and making timely responsive instructional decisions based on data. With this increasing popularity, researchers and practitioners have developed several RtI-related assessments, many of which have no known psychometric properties. As a result, there is an urgent need to develop psychometrically sound RtI readiness and implementation assessments that possess technical adequacy and practical utility. This study surveyed 377 participants to examine the factor structure of the author-developed RtI survey. An exploratory factor analysis identified seven relevant factors (system support, belief, conceptual knowledge, practical knowledge, resource, time, and system barrier) from the initial pool of 49 items. Results of reliability estimates supported the internal consistency of each subscale. Collectively, this validated RtI survey can be used to help district and school leaders efficiently screen a system's current RtI readiness and implementation status. The data may also inform successful RtI initiation and sustainment of the reform. Limitations and future directions for research are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)360-387
Number of pages28
JournalJournal of Applied School Psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2 2018


  • Response to intervention
  • RtI implementation
  • systemic assessment


Dive into the research topics of 'Exploring the Factor Structure of the RTI Readiness and Implementation Survey'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this