Exploring outdoor recreation conflict's role in evolving constraints models

Ingrid E. Schneider, Christopher Wynveen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Following recommendations to cross-fertilize leisure constraints and recreation conflict research, this project proposes contributions to the leisure literature in two areas: (1) it advances the study of outdoor recreation conflict by empirically testing the role of motivations in coping with outdoor recreation conflict and (2) it further develops the discussion of the relationships among motivations, constraints, coping, and participation. Analysis of data from hiker surveys in Minnesota, USA, revealed that: (1) constraints, coping, and motivations directly impacted outdoor recreation participation, and (2) coping did not mediate the relationship between constraints and participation. Whereas data do not elucidate the roles among these variables, they do empirically support the relationship between constraints and conflict. Hence, findings suggest the need for future constraint investigation to include motivation and coping indicators.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)37-43
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism
StatePublished - Apr 9 2015

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Project funded by the Recreational Trails Program in the U.S. Department of Transportation׳s Federal Highway Administration as well as the Carlson Chair for Travel, Tourism and Hospitality at the University of Minnesota Tourism Center. Thanks to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Tim Kelly in particular, for assistance with questionnaire design. Thank you to the graduate students who worked on the descriptive reports for this project, Andrea Schuweiller and Theresa Bipes, and others who assisted with mailing efforts.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Coping
  • Motivation
  • Negotiation
  • Outdoor recreation
  • Stress


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