Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important vascular disease and public health problem. Prevention of VTE has focused mainly on using thromboprophylaxis to avoid provoked VTE or recurrent VTE, with little attention paid to the possibility of preventing the one third to one half of VTEs that are unprovoked. We review growing research suggesting that unhealthy lifestyle risk factors may cause a considerable proportion of unprovoked VTE. Using epidemiologic data to calculate population attributable risks, we estimate that in the United States obesity may contribute to 30% of VTEs, physical inactivity to 4%, current smoking to 3%, and Western dietary pattern to 11%. We also review possibilities for VTE primary prevention either through a high-risk individual approach or a population-wide approach. Interventions for outpatients at high VTE risk but without VTE provoking factors have not been fully tested; yet, improving patient awareness of risk and symptoms, lifestyle counseling, and possibly statins or direct oral anticoagulants may prove useful in primary prevention of unprovoked VTE. A population approach to prevention would bolster awareness of VTE and aim to shift lifestyle risk factors downward in the whole population using education, environmental changes, and policy. Assuming the epidemiological associations are accurate, causal, and independent of each other, a reduction of obesity, physical inactivity, current smoking, and Western diet by 25% in the general population might reduce the incidence of unprovoked VTE by 12%. We urge further research and consideration that primary prevention of unprovoked VTE may be a worthwhile public health aim.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) grant HL0597367 and ARIC contracts HHSN268201100005C, HHSN268201100006C, HHSN268201100007C, HHSN268201100008C, HHSN268201100009C, HHSN268201100010C, HHSN268201100011C, and HHSN268201100012C.
© 2020 The Authors.
- Primary prevention
- Pulmonary embolus
- Venous thromboembolism
- Venous thrombosis