Exploratory bifactor measurement models in vocational behavior research

Casey Giordano, Deniz S. Ones, Niels G. Waller, Kevin C. Stanek

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


We provide an overview of and guidance for applying exploratory bifactor models to vocational research. First, we describe bifactor models and highlight their potential and actual applications in vocational psychology. Second, we review the theoretical bases of bifactor models and offer methodological guidance to correctly implement and interpret these models in practice. Third, we estimate a bifactor model in two vocational datasets to illustrate the concepts reviewed in this manuscript. The resulting models highlight novel insights in careers research (e.g., developmental performance feedback and personality [conscientiousness] modeling) that are made possible by leveraging bifactor measurement models. Overall, this manuscript provides a useful introduction to bifactor models to facilitate vocational behavior scholars and practitioners in thoughtfully producing and consuming bifactor models in their own research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number103430
JournalJournal of Vocational Behavior
StatePublished - Aug 2020

Bibliographical note

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© 2020 Elsevier Inc.


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