Explaining the demand for free bank notes

Arthur J. Rolnick, Warren E. Weber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


This paper explains why the risky notes of banks established during the Free Banking Era (1837-1863) were demanded even when relatively safe specie (gold and silver coin) was an alternative. Free bank notes were demanded because they were priced to reflect the expected value of their backing. The empirical evidence supports this explanation. Specifically, in New York, Wisconsin, and Indiana the expected value of backing was sufficient for free bank notes to circulate at par, which they did. In Minnesota the backing for notes was very poor: they exchanged well below par, being treated as small-denomination securities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)47-71
Number of pages25
JournalJournal of Monetary Economics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1988


Dive into the research topics of 'Explaining the demand for free bank notes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this