Experimental Studies of the Impact of Anode Pre-Heating

Otavio Fortini, Srinivas Garimella, Edwin Kuhn, Yimin Ruan, Benyam Yacob, Jack Sorensen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Scopus citations


The adverse impact of anode setting on the current efficiency (CE) is well known in the aluminum industry, although few published studies exist. When a cold anode is lowered into the bath, it immediately quenches a layer of frozen bath on the bottom surface that may extend to the metal pad. It takes time, energy, and bath motion to melt this layer. Until then, the anode current distribution is uneven and the bath motion is disrupted around the newly set anodes. These effects are hypothesized to lead to higher noise and lower CE. The paper summarizes experiments, conducted at Alcoa Warrick, during which anodes pre-heated to 480-510°C (bottom surface) were set in a few pots over 60 days. The studies suggest potential to double the rate of load up, reduce energy consumption by 40 kWh/mt, and increase CE by 0.5-1%. Approaches to supply hot anodes are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationLight Metals 2012
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781118359259
ISBN (Print)9781118291399
StatePublished - May 24 2012

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2012 by The Minerals, Metals, & Materials Society. All rights reserved.


  • Anode Pre-heating
  • Current Efficiency
  • Energy Efficiency


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