Experimental investigation of through air drying of tissue and towel under commercial conditions

Matthew Ryan, Jiehai Zhang, Shri Ramaswamy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


An experimental setup was developed to study the through air-drying characteristics of permeable grades such as tissue and towel under commercially relevant conditions of basis weight, airflow rate, temperature, and humidity conditions. The experimental setup is capable of evaluating the transient fluid flow, heat, and mass transfer characteristics of relatively larger samples (TAPPI standard hand sheets; 0.1524 m) and is capable of studying the effect of local heterogeneity and structure on convective heat and mass transfer. The system is capable of airflow rates of 0.5-10 m/s with corresponding high-speed data collection and acquisition for measuring important variables such as exhaust air humidity. To study the effect of nonuniformity, local temperature and velocity profiles can also be measured using grid of thermocouples and hot wire anemometers. The instantaneous drying rate and airflow characteristics during through air drying was measured and dry permeability, wet permeability, and convective heat and mass transfer characteristics were then calculated. The experimental results were verified by comparing with the results from literature. Typical experimental results were presented to show the effect of sheet basis weight, initial moisture content, and airflow rates on the drying characteristics for two different types of paper samples.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)195-204
Number of pages10
JournalDrying Technology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2007


  • Convective heat transfer
  • Convective mass transfer
  • Drying rate
  • Experimental setup
  • Through air drying
  • Wet permeability

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