Background: A synthetic peptide (P-15) analog of collagen added to anorganic bovine bone mineral (ABM) has recently been used as an enhanced bone graft material (ABM/P-15). The objective of this study was to test the contribution of ABM/P-15 in a new putty form (PEP) in two experimental membrane-protected defects: periodontal and intrabony. Its efficacy as filler biomaterial in guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedures was evaluated histologically and morphometrically. Methods: In the maxillary canines, a facial mucoperiosteal flap was raised bilaterally in nine dogs. Two circular defects, 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm in depth, were made on each side: a fenestrated periodontal on the canine root and an intrabony in the alveolar diastema, anteriorly. PEP particles filled both defects on one side; the contralateral side was blood filled (control). All surgical sites were covered with a bioabsorbable membrane. Histologically, at 4 months, tissue blocks were made using the cutting/grinding non-decalcification method followed by morphometric analysis. In the periodontal fenestration root surface, the linear percentage of new cementum (%CEM), area percentage of new bone (%NB), and residual biomaterial particles (%PEP) were calculated. These same measurements were calculated at the intrabony sites, except cementum. The amount of direct NB to PEP contact was measured to assess the osteoconductivity level (OSC). The Pearson correlation test was used to evaluate any significant relationship between the different measured parameters. Results: In the grafted and non-grafted fenestration root surface defects, %CEM averaged 59.5% and 73.9% (P <0.02), respectively; %NB averaged 36.1% and 31.4%, respectively; and %PEP averaged 20.6%. The mean percentage of OSC was 52.4%. In the intrabony grafted and non-grafted sites, %NB averaged 50.7% and 60.1%, respectively (P <0.02). Residual %PEP averaged 26.1%, and OSC averaged 35.6%. At the intrabony sites, higher %NB and lower %OSC were found compared to the fenestration sites (P<0.001 and P<0.03, respectively). Correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between %NB and %PEP at the fenestration defects. In between the two defect types, %OSC was significantly correlated (P<0.05). Conclusions: ABM/P-15 putty showed osteoconductive and biocompatible qualities. However, at 4 months in this model, no enhanced regeneration was present compared to a higher CEM and NB growth detected at non-grafted membrane-protected sites.