The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) International Guidelines for the Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock provide guidance on the care of hospitalized adult patients with (or at risk for) sepsis, based on systematic summary and assessment of relevant literature. This executive summary reviews the history, scope, methodology, and major recommendations of the guidelines, focusing on aspects that are new or different compared with the 2016 guidelines that were published in 2017. Full description of the guidelines process and recommendations are provided in the complete guidelines document.
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Dr. Alhazzani is the Chair of the Guidelines Chapter for the Saudi Critical Care Society and is the chair of the guidelines in intensive care, development and evaluation (GUIDE) Group, McMaster University Canada. Dr. Antonelli received funding from GE, Toray-Estor, Baxter, Pfizer, Orion, Maquet, and Fisher and Paykel; he was on the board of Baxter and Pfizer, and is a member of the executive committee and past president of Società Italiana di Anestesia Rianimazione e Terapia Intensiva (SIAARTI). Dr. French contributed to the ANZICS Guidelines and the National COVID-19 Guidelines. Dr. Machado is a member of the Executive Committee for the Basics Study (for which Baxter provided the drugs and logistics) and AMIB. Dr. McIntyre is a member of the Canadian Critical Care Society and serves on the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Steering Committee. Dr. Ostermann is a council member of the Intensive Care Society UK and member of the Renal Association UK and World Sepsis Alliance. Dr. Prescott is a member of the ATS Critical Care Program Committee. Dr. Simpson is the president-elect and Chair of CHEST, is a member of the board of directors and medical director of Sepsis Alliance, and Chair of the Sepsis Institute Advisory Board. Dr. Wiersinga is a member of ISF, ESCIMID, and SWAB. Dr. Angus received funding from Ferring Pharmaceuticals, Inc and ALung Technologies, Inc. Dr. Beale provides consultancy services for Philips Healthcare with his time billed by his institution. Dr. Beilman is the president of the Surgical Infection Society. Dr. Belley-Cote received grants from Roche and Bayer and is a panel member on the Saudi Critical Care Society COVID-19 Thrombosis Guidelines. Dr. Cecconi is a consultant for Edwards Lifesciences, Cheetah Medical, and Directed Systems and is President of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Dr. Coz is a board member of the American College of Chest Physicians. Dr. De Waele consulted for Accelerate, Bayer, Grifols, Pfizer, and MSD with all honoraria paid to Ghent University; he is a Senior Clinical Investigator with the Research Foundation Flanders. Dr. Dellinger serves as an expert witness on occasional medical legal case reviews. Dr. Doi is a member of the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Dr. Du is a member of the Chinese Society of Critical Care Medicine and the Chinese College of Intensive Care Medicine. Dr. Ferrer received funding from Grifols, MSD, Pfizer, Shionogi, Toray, Jafron, and Cytosorbents; he is a member of SEMICYUC. Dr. Gomersall is a member of an educational subgroup of the International Forum of Acute Care Trialists. Dr. Hodgson is a member of the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines (COVID-19) and leading funded trials in early rehabilitation and ECMO. Dr. Møller contributed to guideline work for DASAIM, SSAI, GUIDE, and ESA. Dr. Iwashyna is a member of the ATS, the NIH, and an informal (unincorporated) organization called the Critical and Acute Illness Recovery Organization. Dr. Jacob co-directs the African Research Collaboration on Sepsis (ARCS, funded by UK National Institute for Health Research, sponsored by Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine), he is Secretary General for the African Sepsis Alliance, and is a technical expert for the World Health Organization panels. Dr. Kleinpell is a board member of the World Federation of Intensive and Critical Care, American Nurses Credentialing Center, and the Tennessee Nurses Association Political Action Committee. Dr. Klompas received funding from Up-to-Date; he is a member of the guidelines committees of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) and Society of Healthcare Epidemiologists of America (SHEA). Dr. Koh is a member of The Korean Society of Critical Care Medicine, The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases, The Korean Society of Medical Ethics, and the Asia Ventilation Forum. Dr. Kumar served as an expert witness regarding a lethal dose of narcotics. Dr. Kwizera is president of the Intensive Care Society of Uganda and PRO for the Association of Anesthesiologists of Uganda. Dr. Lobo received funding from Pfizer, MSD, Edwards, and Nestle; she is the principal investigator in new antibiotics research led by CROs/industry; she is a member of the AMIB Executive Board and was elected president for 2020-2021. Dr. McGloughlin is a member of ANZICS (Australian New Zealand Intensive Care Society). Dr. Mehta participated in two non-interventional studies by ISCCM-Hermes and Indicaps. Dr. Mer has been an invited speaker for educational talks in industry-sponsored symposia for which honoraria was received; he is the current Vice President of the Southern African Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (SASTH), and is involved in annual congress organization; he is an invited author of the Global guidelines for the diagnosis and management of mucormycosis: an initiative of the European Confederation of Medical Mycology in cooperation with the Mycoses Study Group Education and Research Consortium. Dr. Nunnally is the treasurer of SOCCA, committee member of ASA, NYSSA, IARS, AUA, and SAAAPM and serves on the American College of Critical Care Medicine Board of Regents. Dr. Oczkowski is a member of the European Respiratory Society, and contributed to the High Flow Nasal Cannula Guidelines, the Non-Invasive Ventilation in COPD Guidelines. Dr. Osborn received funding from Viven Inc, Inflammatrix, Beckman, and the Foundation for Barnes Jewish Hospital; she is on the advisory board for Beckman, Inflammatix, and Viven; she is a member of the American College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Chest Physicians, American Medical Association, Society of Academic Emergency Medicine, and American Academy of Emergency Physicians; she served as an expert witness in a case related to viral as compared to bacterial sepsis. Dr. Papathanassoglou is a member of the World Federation of Critical Care Nurses (Editor of Journal) and the Canadian Association of Critical Care Nurses. Dr. Perner received a research grant from Pfizer Denmark. Dr. Puskarich is the co-inventor of a patent to assess L0carnitine drug responsiveness in sepsis (USPO 10330685); he is a member of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP); he was invited to a recently gathered ACEP early sepsis treatment policy task force asked to develop specialty recommendations for early sepsis treatment. Dr. Roberts received funding from MSD, The Medicines Company, Cardeas Pharma, Biomerieux, QPEX, Cipla, and Pfizer; he consulted for MSD, QPEX, Discuva Ltd, Accelerate Diagnostics, Bayer, Biomerieux, UptoDate, and Australian Therapeutic Guidelines; he is a member of the Society of Hospital Pharmacists of Australia Leadership Committees for Critical Care and Infectious Diseases and the Lead of Sepsis Working group for the International Society of Anti-infective Chemotherapy. Dr. Schweickert is a paid consultant to the American College of Physicians (last performed in Spring, 2019). Dr. Seckel volunteers for AACN and is a paid consultant to revise online Critical Care Orientation. Dr. Sevransky received funding from the Marcus Foundation- PI VICTAS Trial and serves on the American College of Critical Care Medicine Board of Regents. Dr. Welte received funding from Astellas, AstraZeneca, Boehringer, Basilea, Bayer, Berlin-Chemie, Grifols, Infectopharm, Mundipharma, MSD, Novartis, Pfizer, DFG, EU, BMBF, and Insmed; he is on the advisory board for AstraZeneca, Boehringer, Bayer, Gilead, GSK, Insmed, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche; he is a member of the European Respiratory Society, German Society of Pneumology, and Paul Ehrlich Gesellschaft. Dr. Zimmerman is a member of the ACP, AACP, and WFPICCS. Dr. Levy is a legal consultant for a few cases involving sepsis and serves as co-chair of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Steering Committee. The remaining authors have disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest.
The SSC first published guidelines for the management of severe sepsis and septic shock in 2004. Updates were published in 2008, 2012, and 2017. The guidelines are sponsored by the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM), with methodological support by the Guidelines in Intensive Care Development and Evaluation (GUIDE) group, and endorsement by 24 additional societies. There is no funding from any industry partner. Panel membership, patient involvement, and conflict of interest management are discussed in the complete guidelines document.
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