Executive and Social Functioning Across Development in Children and Adolescents With Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

Madeline N. Rockhold, Alyssa M. Krueger, Erik de Water, Christopher W Lindgren, Kristin E. Sandness, Judith K. Eckerle, Mariah J Schumacher, Birgit A. Fink, Christopher J. Boys, Stephanie M. Carlson, Anita J. Fuglestad, Sarah N. Mattson, Kenneth L. Jones, Edward P. Riley, Jeffrey R. Wozniak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Background: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is linked to a variety of neurodevelopmental challenges, including social functioning (SF) and executive functioning (EF) deficits. These deficits present differently across developmental stages from preschool age to adolescence. Methods: The post hoc analyses described here were conducted on data from 83 preschool-age children with PAE (early childhood group; ages 2.5 to 5.0) and 95 adolescents (49 with PAE, 46 controls; ages 8 to 16). Each child completed EF tasks as part of several prior studies. Parents completed social and communication inventories about their child’s abilities. Thirty-three participants from the early childhood group returned for a 4-year follow-up and completed both SF and EF measures. Results: Both the early childhood and adolescent groups with PAE showed deficits in SF and EF. There was a relationship between SF and EF within the adolescent PAE group that was not present in the adolescent control group or the early childhood PAE group. However, at the 4-year follow-up (Mage = 8.45), participants originally in the early childhood PAE group also demonstrated this relationship. Conclusions: These findings support previous research on EF/SF deficits in adolescents with PAE while also addressing a gap in the literature concerning early childhood research on this topic. Additionally, these findings suggest that the relationship between EF and SF deficits may strengthen throughout development. This line of research highlights potential sensitive periods for SF and EF training in children with PAE and suggests that fetal alcohol spectrum disorders programs consider targeting EF training as a component of social skill interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)457-469
Number of pages13
JournalAlcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Dec 21 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
R01AA024123, R33AA019580, R21AA019580, R01AA024123-05, and R01AA024123-05S1 awarded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Part of this work was done in conjunction with the CIFASD. Additional information about CIFASD can be found at www.cifasd.org. Support for the CIFASD portion of this research was provided by the NIAAA (5U01AA026102, 5U01AA014834, 5U24AA014815, 5U24AA014811, 5U24AA014815-16, 3U24AA014815-16S1).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 by the Research Society on Alcoholism


  • Development
  • Executive Function
  • Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
  • Social Behavior


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