Excretion of the principal urinary metabolites of phenytoin and absolute oral bioavailability determined by use of a stable isotope in patients with epilepsy

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Abstract

Background: The anticonvulsant properties of phenytoin (PHT) were discovered in 1938. Since then, it has been one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs. It is slowly absorbed, extensively plasma protein-bound, exhibits a nonlinear, concentration-dependent pharmacokinetic profile, and has a narrow therapeutic range. Methods: We determined PHT bioavailability during steady-state therapy by 1) measurement of the two principal deconjugated PHT urinary metabolites, 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin (p-HPPH) and 5-(3,4-dihydroxy-1,5-cyclohexadien-1-yl)-5-phenylhydantoin (DHD); and 2) direct determination of absolute bioavailability after simultaneous administration of an oral formulation and parenteral stable-labeled PHT (SL-PHT). Urinary metabolites were quantified by an isocratic HPLC-NI-APCI-MS method. The urinary dose recovery was calculated by dividing the molar recovery of the major PHT urinary metabolites by the molar dose received. Results: Urinary metabolite recovery was surprisingly low, 35.4% ± 15.7% in younger patients (age 21-49 years old) and 32.9% ± 15.0% in patients aged 65 to 93 years. Absolute bioavailability was 86.4% ± 19.4% and 92.5% ± 25.2%, respectively. A weak, but significant, Spearman rank correlation was observed between urinary metabolite recovery and oral bioavailability (P = 0.00924, R = 0.166). Conclusion: This weak correlation may be the result of variability in urinary versus biliary-fecal excretion of p-HPPH glucuronide. This study demonstrates that daily PHT oral absorption exhibits wide interpatient variability, which may account for fluctuations in PHT concentration over time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)56-63
Number of pages8
JournalTherapeutic drug monitoring
Volume33
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2011

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Phenytoin
Isotopes
Biological Availability
Epilepsy
Anticonvulsants
Oral Administration
Blood Proteins
Pharmacokinetics
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • metabolism
  • oral bioavailability
  • phenytoin
  • stable isotope
  • urinary recovery

Cite this

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title = "Excretion of the principal urinary metabolites of phenytoin and absolute oral bioavailability determined by use of a stable isotope in patients with epilepsy",
abstract = "Background: The anticonvulsant properties of phenytoin (PHT) were discovered in 1938. Since then, it has been one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs. It is slowly absorbed, extensively plasma protein-bound, exhibits a nonlinear, concentration-dependent pharmacokinetic profile, and has a narrow therapeutic range. Methods: We determined PHT bioavailability during steady-state therapy by 1) measurement of the two principal deconjugated PHT urinary metabolites, 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin (p-HPPH) and 5-(3,4-dihydroxy-1,5-cyclohexadien-1-yl)-5-phenylhydantoin (DHD); and 2) direct determination of absolute bioavailability after simultaneous administration of an oral formulation and parenteral stable-labeled PHT (SL-PHT). Urinary metabolites were quantified by an isocratic HPLC-NI-APCI-MS method. The urinary dose recovery was calculated by dividing the molar recovery of the major PHT urinary metabolites by the molar dose received. Results: Urinary metabolite recovery was surprisingly low, 35.4{\%} ± 15.7{\%} in younger patients (age 21-49 years old) and 32.9{\%} ± 15.0{\%} in patients aged 65 to 93 years. Absolute bioavailability was 86.4{\%} ± 19.4{\%} and 92.5{\%} ± 25.2{\%}, respectively. A weak, but significant, Spearman rank correlation was observed between urinary metabolite recovery and oral bioavailability (P = 0.00924, R = 0.166). Conclusion: This weak correlation may be the result of variability in urinary versus biliary-fecal excretion of p-HPPH glucuronide. This study demonstrates that daily PHT oral absorption exhibits wide interpatient variability, which may account for fluctuations in PHT concentration over time.",
keywords = "metabolism, oral bioavailability, phenytoin, stable isotope, urinary recovery",
author = "Theresa Aliwarga and Cloyd, {James C.} and Varun Goel and Brundage, {Richard C.} and Marino, {Susan E.} and Leppik, {Ilo E.} and Remmel, {Rory P.}",
year = "2011",
month = "2",
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doi = "10.1097/FTD.0b013e3182081089",
language = "English (US)",
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journal = "Therapeutic Drug Monitoring",
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T1 - Excretion of the principal urinary metabolites of phenytoin and absolute oral bioavailability determined by use of a stable isotope in patients with epilepsy

AU - Aliwarga, Theresa

AU - Cloyd, James C.

AU - Goel, Varun

AU - Brundage, Richard C.

AU - Marino, Susan E.

AU - Leppik, Ilo E.

AU - Remmel, Rory P.

PY - 2011/2/1

Y1 - 2011/2/1

N2 - Background: The anticonvulsant properties of phenytoin (PHT) were discovered in 1938. Since then, it has been one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs. It is slowly absorbed, extensively plasma protein-bound, exhibits a nonlinear, concentration-dependent pharmacokinetic profile, and has a narrow therapeutic range. Methods: We determined PHT bioavailability during steady-state therapy by 1) measurement of the two principal deconjugated PHT urinary metabolites, 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin (p-HPPH) and 5-(3,4-dihydroxy-1,5-cyclohexadien-1-yl)-5-phenylhydantoin (DHD); and 2) direct determination of absolute bioavailability after simultaneous administration of an oral formulation and parenteral stable-labeled PHT (SL-PHT). Urinary metabolites were quantified by an isocratic HPLC-NI-APCI-MS method. The urinary dose recovery was calculated by dividing the molar recovery of the major PHT urinary metabolites by the molar dose received. Results: Urinary metabolite recovery was surprisingly low, 35.4% ± 15.7% in younger patients (age 21-49 years old) and 32.9% ± 15.0% in patients aged 65 to 93 years. Absolute bioavailability was 86.4% ± 19.4% and 92.5% ± 25.2%, respectively. A weak, but significant, Spearman rank correlation was observed between urinary metabolite recovery and oral bioavailability (P = 0.00924, R = 0.166). Conclusion: This weak correlation may be the result of variability in urinary versus biliary-fecal excretion of p-HPPH glucuronide. This study demonstrates that daily PHT oral absorption exhibits wide interpatient variability, which may account for fluctuations in PHT concentration over time.

AB - Background: The anticonvulsant properties of phenytoin (PHT) were discovered in 1938. Since then, it has been one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs. It is slowly absorbed, extensively plasma protein-bound, exhibits a nonlinear, concentration-dependent pharmacokinetic profile, and has a narrow therapeutic range. Methods: We determined PHT bioavailability during steady-state therapy by 1) measurement of the two principal deconjugated PHT urinary metabolites, 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin (p-HPPH) and 5-(3,4-dihydroxy-1,5-cyclohexadien-1-yl)-5-phenylhydantoin (DHD); and 2) direct determination of absolute bioavailability after simultaneous administration of an oral formulation and parenteral stable-labeled PHT (SL-PHT). Urinary metabolites were quantified by an isocratic HPLC-NI-APCI-MS method. The urinary dose recovery was calculated by dividing the molar recovery of the major PHT urinary metabolites by the molar dose received. Results: Urinary metabolite recovery was surprisingly low, 35.4% ± 15.7% in younger patients (age 21-49 years old) and 32.9% ± 15.0% in patients aged 65 to 93 years. Absolute bioavailability was 86.4% ± 19.4% and 92.5% ± 25.2%, respectively. A weak, but significant, Spearman rank correlation was observed between urinary metabolite recovery and oral bioavailability (P = 0.00924, R = 0.166). Conclusion: This weak correlation may be the result of variability in urinary versus biliary-fecal excretion of p-HPPH glucuronide. This study demonstrates that daily PHT oral absorption exhibits wide interpatient variability, which may account for fluctuations in PHT concentration over time.

KW - metabolism

KW - oral bioavailability

KW - phenytoin

KW - stable isotope

KW - urinary recovery

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