The current study sought to expand on prior reports of the validity and reliability of the CAINS (CAINS) by examining its performance across diverse non-academic clinical settings as employed by raters not affiliated with the scale's developers and across a longer test-retest follow-up period. The properties of the CAINS were examined within the Management of Schizophrenia in Clinical Practice (MOSAIC) schizophrenia registry. A total of 501 participants with a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis who were receiving usual care were recruited across 15 national Patient Assessment Centers and evaluated with the CAINS, other negative symptom measures, and assessments of functioning, quality of life and cognition. Temporal stability of negative symptoms was assessed across a 3-month follow-up. Results replicated the two-factor structure of the CAINS reflecting Motivation and Pleasure and expression symptoms. The CAINS scales exhibited high internal consistency and temporal stability. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations between the CAINS subscales with other negative symptom measures. Additionally, the CAINS was significantly correlated with functioning and quality of life. Discriminant validity was demonstrated by small to moderate associations between the CAINS and positive symptoms, depression, and cognition (and these associations were comparable to those found with other negative symptom scales). Findings suggest that the CAINS is a reliable and valid tool for measuring negative symptoms in schizophrenia across diverse clinical samples and settings.
- Clinical interview
- Negative symptoms