Examination of the temporal relationship between smoking and major depressive disorder among low-income women in public primary care clinics

Isabel C. Scarinci, Janet Thomas, Phillip J. Brantley, Glenn N. Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose. To determine the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) by smoking status, and the temporal relationship between smoking and MDD, and explore other smoking-related variables that may be associated with MDD. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Public primary care clinics. Subjects. Researchers studied 338 women (76% African-Americans) who were randomly selected while attending appointments in two public primary care clinics. Measures. Data pertaining to smoking-related variables and MDD diagnosis were obtained using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV). Results. The prevalence of a lifetime history of MDD was significantly higher for current smokers (56.6%) than among former smokers (37.5%) or never-smokers (30.3%; p < .001). Most ever-smokers (81.3%) began smoking and were nicotine-dependent (63.6%) prior to their first episode of MDD. Using logistic regression, after controlling for demographic and smoking-related variables, age of smoking onset was the strongest variable associated with MDD among ever-smokers. Specifically, the odds of having an MDD decreased by 8.2% for each year delay, in smoking initiation. Conclusion. These results suggest that smoking initiation precedes MDD and that smoking is associated with a high prevalence of MDD among low-income women attending primary care clinics. Further, the younger women start smoking the more likely they are to have MDD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)323-330
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Health Promotion
Volume16
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2002

Keywords

  • Low-income
  • Major Depressive Disorder
  • Primary Care
  • Smoking
  • Women

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