Evolving strategies of pulmonary preservation, bronchial revascularization, immunosuppression, and infectious disease management were used in 15 initial consecutive patients undergoing lung transplantation for emphysema. There were 10 women and 5 men with a mean age of 49 years (range, 36 to 60 years). All patienta required supplemental oxygen therapy. One bilatoral, 9 left, and 5 right transplantations were performed. Mean preoperative forced expiratory volume In 1 second and total lung capacity were 16% and 146%, respectively, of predicted. Quadruple drug inununosuppresnon was used. Actuarial 1-year survival in this initial series is 93.3% ± 6.4% (Kaplan-Meier) with one early cardiac death at day 71. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide at discharge were 43% and 62%, respectively, of predicted. Rehabilitation has been excellent, and all survivors are active and free of supplemental oxygen. During the study, the following treatment strategies have evolved: (1) University of Wisconsin solution has replaced Euro-Collins' solution for pulmonary preservation; (2) direct bronchial revascularization with the internal thoracic artery now is used; (3) an algorithm-based variable dose OKT3 induction regimen has resulted in a major redaction in dosage; and (4) infectious disease management focuses on the prophylaxis of cytomegatovirus and fungal infection using prolonged gandclovir and early itraconazole therapy as well as the avoidance of Epstein-Barr virus mismatches. Single-lung transplantation for emphysema has excellent early results with continuing evolving management strattgies.