During 1998, severe outbreaks of influenza were observed in four swine herds in the United States. This event was unique because the causative agents, H3N2 influenza viruses, are infrequently isolated from swine in North America. Two antigenically distinct reassortant viruses (H3N2) were isolated from infected animals: a double-reassortant virus containing genes similar to those of human and swine viruses, and a triple-reassortant virus containing genes similar to those of human, swine, and avian influenza viruses (N. N. Zhou, D. A. Senne, J. S. Landgraf, S. L. Swenson, G. Erickson, K. Rossow, L. Liu, K.-J. Yoon, S. Krauss, and R. G. Webster, J. Virol. 73:8851-8856, 1999). Because the U.S. pig population was essentially naive in regard to H3N2 viruses, it was important to determine the extent of viral spread. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays of 4,382 serum samples from swine in 23 states indicated that 28.3% of these animals had been exposed to classical swine-like H1N1 viruses and 20.5% had been exposed to the triple-reassortant-like H3N2 viruses. The HI data suggested that viruses antigenically related to the double-reassortant H3N2 virus have not become widespread in the U.S. swine population. The seroreactivity levels in swine serum samples and the nucleotide sequences of six additional 1999 isolates, all of which were of the triple-reassortant genotype, suggested that H3N2 viruses containing avian PA and PB2 genes had spread throughout much of the country. These avian-like genes cluster with genes from North American avian viruses. The worldwide predominance of swine viruses containing an avian-like internal gene component suggests that these genes may confer a selective advantage in pigs. Analysis of the 1999 swine H3N2 isolates showed that the internal gene complex of the triple-reassortant viruses was associated with three recent phylogenetically distinct human-like hemagglutinin (HA) molecules. Acquisition of HA genes from the human virus reservoir will significantly affect the efficacy of the current swine H3N2 vaccines. This finding supports continued surveillance of U.S. swine populations for influenza virus activity.