Preventing hyperacute rejection (HAR) is a difficult and unsolved problem in xenotransplantation. This may be due, in part, to a lack of therapies that can suppress production of natural antibodies (NA), which are thought to be critical mediators of HAR. This study examined the effect of 15-deoxyspergualin (DSPG) and splenectomy (Spx) on NA production and return of NA after plasma exchange (PE) in a discordant species combination (strain 2 guinea pig to Lewis rat). A dose of 5 mg/kg/day DSPG + Spx significantly reduced Lewis rat anti-guinea pig NA titer after one week of therapy. Antibody titer was not significantly reduced in rats treated with splenectomy alone. PE alone acutely depleted NA titers; however, complete rebound was seen in 48 hr. When PE was performed in rats treated with DSPG + Spx, an additional significant NA reduction occurred; no rebound 24-48 hr after PE was seen. Except for a 20% reduction in body weight, no serious complications occurred in DSPG + Spx recipients. Despite a profound NA titer reduction, treatment with DSPG, Spx, and PE did not prolong guinea pig cardiac xenograft survival in a clinically significant fashion. Immunopathological study of rejected cardiac xenografts revealed no antibody deposition but persistent complement deposition on vascular endothelium. We conclude that DSPG + Spx effectively inhibits synthesis of rat anti-guinea pig NA, that further NA titer reduction can be achieved with the addition of PE, and that DSPG + Spx prevents post-PE antibody rebound. We also conclude that the limited prolongation in cardiac xenograft survival achieved, despite marked suppression of NA, supports a complement-mediated mechanism of HAR in our animal model.