This exchange represents a follow-up to an article on the effects of state high school exit examinations that previously appeared in this journal (Warren, Grodsky, & Kalogrides 2009). That 2009 was article featured prominently in a report by the National Research Council (NRC) that evaluated the efficacy of test-based accountability systems. Hanushek (2012) was highly critical of the NRC's interpretation of the existing evidence, including Warren, Grodsky, & Kalogrides' 2009 piece. Here, Warren and Grodsky explain why they believe that Hanushek incorrectly evaluated their original article on state high school exit examinations. Hanushek then responds.