Evidence for reciprocal interaction effects among adults with self-injury and their caregivers

Jason J. Wolff, Jamie Clary, Vickie N. Harper, James W. Bodfish, Frank J. Symons

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Patterns of caregiver responses to client adaptive behavior were compared between adults with intellectual disabilities with and without self-injurious behavior. Participants with moderate to profound intellectual disability and self-injury (n 5 89) and age/IQ matched control participants (n 5 20) were selected from a large sample of adults living in a regional residential center. Approximately 45 minutes of direct observation data were collected for each participant during unstructured leisure time. Data were sequentially analyzed and Yule's Q scores derived and compared among groups. Results indicated that caregivers were more responsive to prosocial initiations and adaptive engagement among individuals with severe self-injurious behavior than to those with mild or no self-injurious behavior and that these responses were more likely to be in the form of a demand.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)225-232
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican journal on intellectual and developmental disabilities
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Caregivers
  • Child effects
  • Self-injurious behavior (SIB)


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